Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common, preventable, and treatable disease characterized by persistent respiratory symptoms, including dyspnea, cough, and sputum production, as well as airflow limitation. The chronic airflow limitation characteristic of COPD is caused by airway and/or alveolar abnormalities, which are usually due to exposure to noxious particles or gases.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating autoimmune disease resulting in joint damage and compromised physical function with disease progression. RA is also linked to several serious comorbidities and premature death. Furthermore, RA is a heterogeneous disease and, therefore, treatment response is variable. As a result, disease management is challenging and the substantial treatment costs for RA outpace other chronic disease states.